🖊️ Edited by Don E. Wilson, Russell A. Mittermeier
🎨 Illustrated by Toni Llobet
Published by Lynx Edicions in association with Conservation International and IUCN
Hoofed mammals include many families of large, well-known animals. In the second volume of HMW they are revealed in all their fascinating detail, in riveting accounts written by some of the most renowned authorities in the world. The species accounts supply complete and up-to-date information at a time when new and increasingly sophisticated methods of DNA analysis are reshaping our knowledge of these species; to give just one example, the family Bovidae has almost doubled its size in the last five years, to the 279 distinct species known today.
Find out more about the contents of Volume 2 by reading the introduction.
Families covered in this volume
Family Orycteropodidae (Aardvark)
William Andrew Taylor
Family Procaviidae (Hyraxes)
Family Elephantidae (Elephants)
Family Manidae (Pangolins)
Family Equidae (Horses and relatives)
Family Rhinocerotidae (Rhinoceroses)
Family Tapiridae (Tapirs)
Emília Patrícia Medici
Family Camelidae (Camels)
Family Suidae (Pigs)
Erik Meijaard, Jean-Pierre d’Huart & William Oliver
Family Tayassuidae (Peccaries)
Andrew Taber, Mariana Altrichter, Harald Beck & Jaime Gongora
Family Hippopotamidae (Hippopotamuses)
Family Tragulidae (Chevrotains)
Family Moschidae (Musk-deer)
Family Cervidae (Deer)
Family Bovidae (Hollow-horned Ruminants)
Colin Groves, David Leslie, Brent Huffman, Raul Valdez, Khushal Habibi, Paul Weinberg, James Burton, Peter Jarman & William Robichaud
Family Antilocapridae (Pronghorn)
Family Giraffidae (Giraffe and Okapi)
John Skinner & Graham Mitchell
56 colour plates
664 colour photographs
430 distribution maps
c.5000 bibliographical references
24 × 31 cm
Dr Don E. Wilson: Chairman, Department of Vertebrate Zoology, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC, USA; and Co-chair, IUCN/SSC Small Mammal Specialist Group.
Dr Russell A. Mittermeier: President, Conservation International; Vice-President, International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN); and Chair, IUCN/SSC Primate Specialist Group, USA.
Dr Mariana Altrichter: Instructor, Department of Environmental Studies and Cultural and Regional Studies, Prescott College, Arizona, USA; and Co-chair, IUCN/SSC Peccary Specialist Group.
Dr Harald Beck: Assistant Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Towson University, Towson, Maryland, USA; and Co-chair, IUCN/SSC Peccary Specialist Group.
Dr James A. Burton: Research Manager, Earthwatch Institute, Oxford, England; also, Chair, IUCN/SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group.
Dr John A. Byers: Professor of Zoology, University of Idaho, Moscow, Idaho, USA.
Dr Jean-Pierre d'Huart: Director, Conservation Consultancy Services sprl, Beauvechain, Belgium.
Dr Eric Dinerstein: Chief Scientist and Vice President for Science, World Wildlife Fund, Washington, DC, USA.
Dr William L. Franklin: Professor Emeritus, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.
Dr Philippe Gaubert: Staff Researcher, UMR BOREA, Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France; and member of the IUCN/SSC Small Carnivore Specialist Group.
Dr Jaime Gongora: Senior Lecturer, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia.
Professor Colin Groves: Professor of Biological Anthropology, School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia; also, member of the following IUCN/SSC groups: African Rhino, Antelope, Asian Rhino, Asian Wild Cattle, Deer, Equid, Hippo, Peccary, Primate, Small Carnivore, and Wild Pig.
Dr Khushal Habibi: Wildlife Biologist, Clarksville, Maryland, USA.
Dr Hendrik N. Hoeck: Board member of Ubuntu Foundation, Switzerland, and Fundación Humedales, Colombia; also, President of the Friends of Galápagos, Switzerland.
Professor Peter J. Jarman: Honorary Associate, School of Zoology, University of Tasmania, Sandy Bay, Tasmania, Australia.
Dr David M. Leslie, Jr: Unit Leader and Adjunct Professor, United States Geological Survey, Oklahoma Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, Department of Natural Resource Ecology and Management, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, Oklahoma, USA.
Dr Rebecca L. Lewison: Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, San Diego State University, San Diego, California, USA; and Chair, IUCN/SSC Hippo Specialist Group.
Dr Stefano Mattioli: Collaborator of the Research Unit of Behavioural Ecology, Ethology and Wildlife Biology, Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Siena, Siena, Italy.
Dr Emília Patrícia Medici: Research Coordinator, Lowland Tapir Conservation Initiative, Instituto de Pesquisas Ecológicas (Institute for Ecological Research), Brazil; also, Chair, IUCN/SSC Tapir Specialist Group.
Dr Erik Meijaard: Forest Director, People and Nature Consulting International, Jakarta, Indonesia; also, Visiting Fellow, School of Archaeology and Anthropology, Australian National University, Canberra, Australian Capital Territory, Australia.
Professor Graham Mitchell: Emeritus Professor, Department of Zoology and Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA; also, Honorary Professor, Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
William L. R. Oliver: Director, Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Programme, Philippines Biodiversity Conservation Foundation, Manila, Philippines; also, Chair, IUCN/SSC Wild Pigs Specialist Group.
William Robichaud: Coordinator, Saola Working Group, IUCN/SSC Asian Wild Cattle Specialist Group, Laos and USA.
Professor Dan I. Rubenstein: Class of 1877 Professor of Zoology, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey, USA.
Professor John Skinner: Professor Extraordinaire, Centre for Veterinary Wildlife Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, South Africa.
Dr Andrew B. Taber: Deputy Director General, Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor, Indonesia.
Dr Andrew Taylor: Postdoctoral Research Associate, Department of Zoology & Physiology, University of Wyoming, Laramie, Wyoming, USA.
Dr Raul Valdez: Professor, Department of Fish, Wildlife and Conservation Ecology, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, New Mexico, USA.
Dr Paul J. Weinberg: Leading researcher, North Ossetian State Nature Reserve, Alagir, Republic North Ossetia-Alania, Russian Federation.
Dr George Wittemyer: Assistant Professor, Department of Fish, Wildlife, and Conservation Biology, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Toni Llobet (b. Barcelona, 1975) is a self-taught wildlife artist and naturalist, with a wide knowledge of field naturalism, geography and environmental issues. As well as being a field sketcher and traditional painter, he is a master of digital illustration technique, which allows him to work to high levels of both accuracy and productivity.
More than two decades as a wildlife artist - his first illustrations were created in his early teens for local bulletins and guides - have yielded a wide range of material and publications, from interpretation boards for Natural Parks to environmental computer games and websites, as well as children's books on endangered species, T-shirts, posters, information panels, logos, leaflets, guides, and books and other material for organizations and government bodies both in Catalonia and abroad, such as the Catalan Institute for Ornithology, the Durrell Wildlife Preservation Trust, Greenpeace, WWF, the Swedish ministry of the Environment and the UNEP-MAP programme. The Catalan Bird Breeding Atlas 1999-2002 was one of his most important projects prior to the challenge of illustrating the Handbook of the Mammals of the World.
Sem Broeke –
it’s a great book for all lovers of these wonderful animals. It shoes all of the hoofed animals, not just the famous ones. It also shoes some lesser known animals like the pangolins, the hyraxes and the aardvark. In the past five years the bovid species had doubled, because of new DNA research. Althow the book was published in 2011, it contains the newest information from that year about all of the 279 bovid species.
It’s a great book, I defenitely recommend it!
Gehan de Silva Wijeyeratne –
The mammals classified as Hoofed Mammals include some of the most familiar, economically important and iconic mammals in the world. The familiar and economically important sheep, cattle and horses and the iconic elephants are amongst them. These mammals also have a long historical association with people. They can also strike fear and awe. If you have ever been at the receiving end of a charge by a buffalo or elephant you will understand this well. Admittedly ‘Hoofed Mammals’ would not be the choice of label if a PR agency was employed to inject some glamour. But there is no doubting their importance. Horses played a role in the conquest of the New World. Hannibal used elephants to cross the Alps. Today, the multibillion dollar wildlife tourism industry in Africa uses images of elephants, zebras and antelopes in eye-catching advertisements to entice travellers. For the serious wildlife enthusiast who wants a lot of useful information brought together into a single book, Volume 2 in the Handbook of the Mammals of the World is an invaluable reference. Like every volume in the series, it is an Aladdin’s Cave of information.
It is a multi-author work; an international collaboration with 29 authors. Each volume is a Herculean task brought together by a sizeable editorial and administrative team. The completion of the series will mark a significant milestone in the history of zoological literature. Skilful editing has resulted in a book that reads as a coherent whole and the book follows the general format set for the series with the first volume.
Each scientific order of mammals is preceded by an introduction which begins with a text box that has summary information such as the number of genera and species. A useful map allows a quick visual overview of the distribution of the mammals. For example, it is easy to see that the Aardvark, an order with just one species, is widely distributed across Sub-Saharan Africa. The introduction follows standard headings such as Systematics, Morphological Aspects, Habitat, General Habits, Communication, Food and Feeding, Movements, Home Range and Social Organisation, Relationship with Humans, Status and Conservation followed by a general bibliography. They vary in length and not surprisingly, families such as elephants have a longer introduction at 25 pages. These introductions are very well written and will be an absorbing introduction to anyone travelling out of their own country and encountering a family of mammals that is new to them. The family introductions are densely packed with information but yet written in an accessible style and do not come across as text book English. The introduction is liberally illustrated with stunning images and captioned intelligently. One of my favourite images is that of the tip of the trunk of an Asian Elephant grasping a cluster of leaves with the caption explaining it as one of the most sensitive organs found in a mammal. I have spent hundreds of hours photographing elephants and I have never managed to capture an image that shows this so well. The excellent family introductions are followed by the species accounts which follow a field guide style with text facing illustrated plates. The text accompanying the ‘plates’ is in smaller font and the text is more telegraphic in style and intended for reference. The text follows a standard style beginning with Taxonomy, followed by other sections such as Distribution, Habitat, Movements, Home Range and Social Organisation. These sections will differ in appeal to people. I have a preference for understanding the current taxonomy as I write popular field guides and I also like to read on behaviour so that I can interpret what I see in the field. Others may find the Status and Conservation sections, for example, of more interest.
The volume covers six orders of mammals. The Aardvarks (1 species), Hyraxes (5 species), Elephants (3 species) and Pangolins (8 species) are orders with just one family within the order. Therefore, four of the six orders comprise a mere 17 species. However, the two orders Perissodactyla and Artiodactyla include a significant number of species making up the bulk of the book (pages 82 to 809). The perissodactyls or odd-toed ungulates comprise three families. The horses, rhinoceroses and the tapirs. The artiodactyls or even-toed ungulates comprise 9 families. These are the camels, pigs, peccaries, hippopotamuses, chevrotains, musk-deer, deer, bovines (Hollow-horned Ruminants), pronghorn, giraffes and okapi. With the exception of families such as the chevrotains, I suspect almost all of these families are known to almost any city dweller who has access to wildlife documentaries on television or has visited a zoo.
The more complex families have schematics which show how they break down. For example, the bovines (or Hollow-horned Ruminants) comprise 279 species in 54 genera. The family Bovidae is subdivided into two subfamilies, the Bovinae and Antilopinae. The subfamily Bovinae has three tribes, bovini (cattle and buffaloes), nilgai and chowsingha (Boselaphini) and bushbucks, kudus and elands (Tragelaphini). The subfamily Antilopinae comprises 9 tribes and includes many species familiar to anyone who has been on safari in the African savannah. However, seemingly similar mammals such as impalas (Aepycerotini) and gazelles (Antilopini) are in different tribes. One thing this book does is challenge perceptions.
As I browse through the book, I cannot help noticing that I am also ticking off in my mind which tribes of mammals I have encountered in the wild on my travels in various continents. Not surprisingly the systematics section which for some orders may only warrant a fraction of page, in the case of the bovines runs into several pages (pages 444 to 465). To enjoy mammals, you do not need to be conversant with their taxonomy. But for anyone who is interested in evolutionary relationships and likes to understand at a high level how different species of mammals fit together, the schematic diagrams and text are interesting.
The book puts the large format (310 x 240mm) to good use with some images adorning a full page. Another stunning example being the Günther’s dik-dik adorning a full page with a raised crest of hairs. I was immediately reminded of the parallel with birds and reptiles that may raise a crest in courtship or threat display. Whether it is to learn that all dik-diks have this crest of hairs or that bovines doze rather than ‘deep-sleep’ to be in a posture that enables digestion, there appears to be something new to learn in every paragraph. The cervids or deer in the family Cervidae are another group that is of interest to many being found in North and South America, Europe and Asia with notable absences in Africa and Australia and New Guinea. Many tourists to the African savannah think antelopes and gazelles are deer. In fact, antelopes and gazelles are in the family of Hollow-horned Ruminants. The 53 species of deer are in 18 genera are in two subfamilies. The Cervinae with two tribes, the muntjacs and Old World deer both and another three tribes within the subfamily Capreolinae. I have taken many images of Axis or Spotted Deer bounding away in national parks in Sri Lanka. Browsing the picture captions of a deer bounding away I gather that deer that bound away fall into the group of ‘saltatorial’ species living in enclosed habitats as opposed to ‘cursorial species’ living in open habitats. I had not thought of grouping deer like that before and one of the pleasures of a book like this is that it provides new ways in which to reflect on field observations. Other images illustrate how some deer use antorbital glands to mark trees and bushes. Wildlife photographers interested in recording behaviour will find plenty of useful insights on what to be alert to in the field.
The 56 plates by Toni Llobet are to a very high standard. They are accurate, capture the jizz and are photo realistic. One can almost feel the fur on the dik-diks. Where necessary, subspecies are illustrated, such as with the Plains Zebra where 6 subspecies are illustrated. The gleaming images are crisp and look like they have been photoshopped out of photographs. When the series is completed the whole collection of plates will represent one of the most ambitious projects in zoological illustration.
The end sections of the book include the references broken into two parts. The References of Scientific Descriptions (pages 805 to 809) is a convenient summary of the publications relating to the original description of species covered in the volume. This is followed by the General List of References (pages 811 to 870). Such is the pace and volume of scientific papers coming out, even for an author specialising in just one family, it would be difficult to keep abreast.
Not all hoofed mammals are as charismatic as elephants, horses and rhinoceroses or emblematic of safari as with zebras and giraffes. But they are a deeply familiar group of mammals with a long historical relationship with humans and a group that is familiar to everyone one from childhood; perhaps even with a troublesome interloper if you are European householder in the countryside whose prized plants are being eaten away by introduced muntjac which have established feral populations. Whatever your take on the group of mammals, this is a fascinating book if you want to learn more than the space constraints allowed in a portable field guide. Although science does not stand still, it is also an important book which serves as a starting point for any serious zoologist to gain an overview on what is already known.